Problems Affecting Nigerians face
Question: How can we solve the political, social and economic problems in Nigeria? We’ve discussed the major challenges that Nigeria is facing. These challenges are many, though not all of them were fully detailed here. However, this article also supplies some of the possible solutions to address those challenges. I believe that the situation of the country will get better if these solutions are put into action by both the government and the citizens of Nigeria. Nigeria is our country, and we can build it with combined effort. Let there be peace, and may you be an agent of peace.
Nigeria suffers from a deficit of civic pride and collective responsibility. Wealthy Nigerians do little to use what they have to help the masses. Instead, they transfer their money to foreign banks rather than making it useful for the nation. When these wealthy men want to go on holiday, they travel to the United States or Canada, and many migrate to the developed world rather than spend their money in Nigeria.
Some of the most important problems facing Nigeria today that the government should address are crime and security, unemployment, electricity access, and infrastructure and roads quality. This was pointed out by Nigerian citizens surveyed in 2020. Question: How can we resolve insurgencies and insecurities in Nigeria?
Question: How can Nigeria develop in term of injustice and lack of peace? Answer: There are many ways the problem of insurgencies and insecurities can be resolved in Nigeria. Afrobarometer, In your opinion, what are the most important problems facing this country that government should address? Statista, https://www.statista.com/statistics/1269122/opinions-on-most-important-problem-facing-nigeria/ (last visited July 15, 2022)
Nigeria needs more power and better roads. The workers in these sectors should be paid well, and those with good skills and strong ethics should be rewarded. Citizens should carry out a peaceful movement, telling the government how important the power supply is to the country. Question: How can Nigeria develop in terms of economic, political, and technology?
The Nigerian crime problem gives many citizens in this country sleepless nights. In many places, people feel they can no longer walk around their own neighborhoods unharmed. Public safety is the most fundamental responsibility of any state, and Nigeria has failed in this regard. Road accidents are another trending challenge in Nigeria. Many citizens of Nigeria have lost their lives in road accidents. Before, it was air accidents by flights that were an issue in the country, until the federal government looked into it and had the problem tackled.
There is also a lot of corruption in the Nigerian educational system, particularly universities. Lecturers are known to collect money from students in exchange for good grades. Some say they have to bribe university administrators in order to have their exam results compiled and submitted to the (required) National Youth Service Corps.
Nigeria has many problems. They include but are not limited to the following: The problem with Nigeria is that of low/poor mentality and the solution lies in what the Chinese. did a long time ago; some sort of re-education. We’ve discussed the major challenges that Nigeria is facing. These challenges are many, though not all of them were fully detailed here. However, this article also supplies some of the possible solutions to address those challenges. I believe that the situation of the country will get better if these solutions are put into action by both the government and the citizens of Nigeria. Nigeria is our country, and we can build it with combined effort. Let there be peace, and may you be an agent of peace.
Question: How can we resolve insurgencies and insecurities in Nigeria? Contemporary social problems in Nigeria can be solved by applying the following measures: The Nigerians in Nigeria needs to be informed, enlighting and empowered with quality education. Nigeria needs more power and better roads. The workers in these sectors should be paid well, and those with good skills and strong ethics should be rewarded. Citizens should carry out a peaceful movement, telling the government how important the power supply is to the country.
These factors have significantly contributed to the economic problems in Nigeria today and solutions lie in good leadership, accountability, education, paying of taxes, employment, and security. The main problem of Nigeria is our retrogressive federal structure that encourages everyone to loot profligately , once “na our turn”, and discourages/erodes the notion of national pride.
The main problem of Nigeria is our retrogressive federal structure that encourages everyone to loot profligately , once “na our turn”, and discourages/erodes the notion of national pride. Answer: There are many ways the problem of insurgencies and insecurities can be resolved in Nigeria. The main problem of Nigeria is GOVERNMENT…..and the solution is GOVERNMENT…..period, we have to find ways of dealing with those cabals and their sycophants. furthermore, the youth must enter into politics, so that, the concept of godfather in politics will be a history. May Allah help our great and bewitching country, NAIJA
What Nigerians must try to do is come together to support the emergence of a brave and equitable President who will be an enabler of progress rather than a stumbling block to development as we have had for the past 13 years under the PDP. What Nigerians must try to do is come together to support the emergence of a brave and equitable President who will be an enabler of progress rather than a stumbling block to development as we have had for the past 13 years under the PDP.
List of Problems Affecting Nigerians
Some of the most important problems facing Nigeria today that the government should address are crime and security, unemployment, electricity access, and infrastructure and roads quality. This was pointed out by Nigerian citizens surveyed in 2020. However, another school of thought believes that the fundamental Nigeria problems as they relate to the economy are unemployment, corruption, devaluation of the national currency, poor infrastructure management, and disproportional taxes and benefits.
Afrobarometer, In your opinion, what are the most important problems facing this country that government should address? Statista, https://www.statista.com/statistics/1269122/opinions-on-most-important-problem-facing-nigeria/ (last visited July 15, 2022) Unemployment is one of the most damaging problems of Nigeria, and many people are disappointed due to widespread joblessness.
These two issues also negatively influence the economic situation of the country. The Nigerian crime issue gives many people in this country sleepless nights. In some places, people feel that they cannot walk around their neighborhoods freely anymore. The major factors hurting the Nigerian economy include inflation, unemployment, government policy, monetary policies, inadequate infrastructures and power supply, inadequate health facilities, insecurity, ineffective leadership and corruption, and over-reliance on oil.
These factors have significantly contributed to the economic problems in Nigeria today and solutions lie in good leadership, accountability, education, paying of taxes, employment, and security. Nigeria is faced with an unprecedented wave of different but overlapping security crises – from kidnapping to extremist insurgencies – almost every corner of the country has been hit by violence and crime.
Considering the different economic problems in Nigeria, the unfortunate thing is that all of them are interconnected and interdependent. If there will be real change, everyone must play their part. Our future is in our hands. Most economic analysts focus on the socio-political ones like nepotism, terrorism, deficiency of patriotism among the people, and poor leadership when discussing Nigeria economic problems and solutions to them.
As Africa’s most populous country, largest economy and most notable democracy, Nigeria is a bellwether for the continent. A weakening economy, rising insecurity and violent conflicts threaten progress made in its democratic development. Amid deepening distrust in government and institutions, Nigeria has significant work to do in improving national, state and local security and governance ahead of national and state elections in 2023.
Nigerians face a number of problems, including:
Nigeria is confronted by multiple security challenges, notably the resilient Boko Haram Islamist insurgency in the north east, long-running discontent and militancy in the Niger Delta, increasing violence between herders and farming communities spreading from the central belt southward, and separatist Biafra agitation in the Igbo south east. Violence, particularly by the Boko Haram insurgency, has displaced more than two million people, created a massive humanitarian crisis, and prompted the rise of civilian vigilante self-defence groups that pose new policy dilemmas and possible security risks. Crisis Group seeks to help the Nigerian government by shedding new light on the country’s security challenges, de-escalating risks and tension, and encouraging regional and gender-specific approaches toward ending the violence durably.
An interplay of various factors drives the complex crisis in Nigeria. Socio-cultural dynamics characterised by a heterogeneous population with an underlying current of ethno-religious tension have led to division between northern and southern Nigeria. This often explodes into conflict whenever there is a trigger. Economic factors such as unemployment, high inflation and poverty also drive insecurity throughout the country, as some youth join criminal gangs and militant groups in a bid for economic survival. Environmental factors also lead to conflict due to climate change and increased competition for scarce land.?
Insecurity is plaguing north-western Nigeria, due to persistent herder-farmer tensions, rising crime and infiltration by Islamist militants. Federal and state authorities should focus on resolving conflict between agrarian and pastoralist communities, through dialogue and resource-sharing agreements, while also stepping up law enforcement.
Despite the contribution to the economy, Nigeria’s agricultural sector faces many challenges which impact on its productivity. These include; poor land tenure system, low level of irrigation farming, climate change and land degradation. Others are low technology, high production cost and poor distribution of inputs, limited financing, high post-harvest losses and poor access to markets.
Nigeria continues to confront multiple security threats across its territory, with insecurity deepening in northern and southern parts of the country. While a long-running Islamist insurgency and ongoing militia activity, often labeled as ‘banditry,’ continue to impact the northern regions, the Biafra separatist rebellion has been a cause of unrest in the south. During 2021, ACLED records a 22% increase in the number of organized political violence events in Nigeria. The violence resulted in over 9,900 reported fatalities, nearly a 30% increase compared to 2020.
In Nigeria’s Middle Belt, there is limited prospect of diminishing inter-communal conflict in the absence of effective measures adopted by the government to address the underlying issues causing the hostilities, such as changes in land use resulting from drought and displacement (Al Jazeera, 28 November 2021). Violence involving Fulani militias is one of the gravest security challenges confronting Nigeria, resulting in hundreds of fatalities and the displacement of thousands in 2021. Although this violence decreased by over 46% in 2021 compared with the peaks of 2018, it risks escalating and further undermining Nigeria’s security in 2022.
Stakes are high for Nigeria and the region. A vote marred in controversy and violence inevitably would hinder efforts to address the country’s security and economic challenges. African Arguments Nigeria’s latest plan for curbing herder-farmer conflict is facing obstacles, including staff and funding shortages as well as political opposition. If this initiative fails, there could be more rural violence. Abuja should work with donors to raise both money and awareness of the scheme’s benefits.
There are several factors that contribute to poor infrastructure, and they include the lack of, or shortages, of funds, insufficient provision of developmental resources and inefficiency of developmental labour as well as poor repair and maintenance. The lack of infrastructure in poor communities significantly impacts the lives of the people living in these communities.
Infrastructure problem: Lack of clarity and consistency of national objectives and standards Poor infrastructure is a serious obstacle in the development of communities and in economic progress. It changes the lives of communities drastically and contributes to poverty. Do you agree/disagree with the list of potential infrastructure problems identified in this chapter?
Infrastructure may seem like a simplistic point compared to other issues like Boko Haram, but how can a country develop without a dependable power supply? The power department is mismanaged and corrupt, and a lot of workers in the electricity department are not equipped with the proper training or skills.
The state of insecurity, with all 6 geo-political zones battling different problems from terrorism to banditry, kidnappings, farmer/herder clashes etc. has further worsened the state of infrastructure in the country. And all of this is further complicated by endemic corruption. Infrastructure refers to the structures, facilities and systems that contribute to the function of a country. These include buildings, roads, bridges, airports, airways, power supplies, water and sanitation supplies, telecommunication systems and more. When these infrastructures are not operating properly, the chain of production is disrupted. This disruption hinders development, which causes economic deficit and, in turn, brings low standards of living.
Unfortunately, the challenges are a double-edged sword, insecurity continues to widen the infrastructural gap by destroying the existing infrastructures and corruption makes it impossible to bridge that gap. Four potential problems have been identified with the existing approval processes for infrastructure:
Poor infrastructure examples include dilapidated classrooms, pit toilets and other damaged school infrastructure. These infrastructure problems in schools not only affect academic performance, but they also infringe on the rights to education, as well as the rights to safety and health of learners as well as of teachers. The effects of poor infrastructure in schools can also be seen in learners’ drop out rates and low-teachers retention rates.
Lack of clarity reduces the ability of local government and private sector infrastructure providers to integrate their investment with central government investment. Complementary private sector investment may also be delayed or reduced in its effectiveness. A lack of clear national priorities regarding the importance of infrastructure, or clear communication of these priorities, impacts on all infrastructure providers, including the Crown, local authorities, and private bodies, and regardless of whether the infrastructure is located in urban or rural areas.
Poor economic conditions
Another main problem affecting nigerians and the country’s economy is the health issue. People suffer from a lack of medicines and inexperienced doctors with bad education. What is more, corruption abounds in this area? In our country, if you have no money, you will not get proper treatment.
Low productivity: This inhibited the abilities of individual households to earn enough income to enable them to maintain adequate living standards. This arose from low utilisation of resources or low human capital development, which is a reflection of low education, poor health or physical incapacity, as well as inadequate access to productive assets.
In Nigeria, the nature of the determinants of poverty can be traced to low or declining level of economic growth, income inequalities, unemployment, corruption, bad governance, diversion of funds into non-developmental projects, fund embezzlement, inappropriate macroeconomic policies, inadequate endowment of human capital, debt or borrowing, labour market deficiencies that were caused by limited growth in job creation, low productivity, low wages in the informal sector and poor development of human resources. Poverty can also arise through structural deficiencies such as environmental degradation, worker retrenchment, frequent and increasing crime rates and violence, decrease in the real value of safety nets, structural changes in the family as well as the neglect of the agricultural sector, non-development of infrastructural facilities, lack of enabling environment for infant industries, epileptic power supply, depreciation of the Nigerian currency (naira) and the military government’s inability to properly manage the Nigerian economy (Ajakaiye & Adeyeye 2001; NPC 2004; Ogwumike 2001).
Macroeconomic shocks and policy failure: The shocks and natural disasters faced by many countries in the world through expansion in aggregate demand policies and terms of trade have led to macroeconomic disequilibrium in the balance of payments. This calls for major policy reforms, which may prevent vulnerability to poverty. The macroeconomic shocks and policies taken, constrain the poor from using their greatest asset – labour – to improve their productivity.
Basic Problems of an Economy – #4 – What provision should be made for economic growth? A lack of authentic competition in the system is among the problems facing the economy. Market forces guide actual capitalistic economics. The self-regulating character of the market defines where one works and lives, how much one earns, and what he/she can buy.
Environmental degradation is another factor that leads to poverty. It includes natural calamities such as wars, floods and rainfall disasters, as well as pollution of bodies of water, soil and forests, which impoverishes the quality of the natural environment. This induces transitory poverty, which arises from environmental problems in the form of food scarcity and shortage of clean water, housing materials and other important resources including natural resources such as land, water, forests and air. People whose lives depend on these natural resources suffer directly from the effects of environmental degradation.
The major factors hurting the Nigerian economy include inflation, unemployment, government policy, monetary policies, inadequate infrastructures and power supply, inadequate health facilities, insecurity, ineffective leadership and corruption, and over-reliance on oil. Inadequate education often stands as a bottleneck in any economy; according to the World Bank (2007) education plays an important role in economic growth and national productivity as well as innovation and democratic values. Illiteracy as well as a lack of education is common in poor countries. This is because governments in sub-Saharan African countries lack the resources to provide adequate public schools in rural areas, such that less than 60% of children in sub-Saharan Africa have an elementary education. Most times poor people in these countries drop out of schooling to enable them to concentrate on making a minimal wage for a living. This prevents people from having the opportunity to secure decent jobs and opportunities to develop themselves to enable them to fully participate in society. In Nigeria the educational system is very poor when compared with other countries in the world.
High unemployment rates
There are other causative factors for the high unemployment rate in Nigeria, which has been posing a big threat to the huge population. One of these is corruption, another challenge, as favouritism and nepotism became key requirements for job placement and replacement in both the private and public sectors. Today jobs are not being given based on merit and these have denied well qualified Nigerians the opportunity to be employed in any sector in the country.
Unemployment results in reduced demand, consumption, and buying power, which in turn causes lower profits for businesses and leads to budget cuts and workforce reductions. It creates a cycle that goes on and on that is difficult to reverse without some type of intervention. Unemployment is caused by various reasons that come from both the demand side, or employer, and the supply side, or the worker.
The upshots – Unemployment statistics may be questioned, but other indicators point us in the same direction. According to the data, states in the Southern part of the country recorded the highest unemployment rates in the country. This is despite being some of the richest states in the country in terms of oil revenues and internally generated funds.
Weak demand for goods and services is the primary driver of this unemployment, not a skills mismatch. Unemployment is a situation whereby persons capable and willing to work are unable to find suitable paid employment. Unemployment is one of the major problems in Nigeria because it has caused so many issues like insecurity, banditry, kidnapping and other related acts.
Unemployment is a situation whereby persons capable and willing to work are unable to find suitable paid employment. Unemployment is one of the major problems in Nigeria because it has caused so many issues like insecurity, banditry, kidnapping and other related acts. Apart from fostering insecurity, high unemployment rate also contributes severely to urban migration. Younger people in these regions will continue to flee for other parts of the country where they feel they can get jobs or even exit the country in general.
For young high school graduates, the unemployment rate is 29.9% (compared with 17.5% in 2007) and the underemployment rate is 51.5% (compared with 29.4% in 2007). Unemployment is a serious social and economic issue that results in a tremendous impact on everything but is often overlooked. A stronger system of assessing unemployment should be put in place in order to determine its causes and how to address it better.
There are many domestic factors affecting the U.S. labor force and employment levels. These include: economic growth; cyclical and structural factors; demographics; education and training; innovation; labor unions; and industry consolidation In addition to macroeconomic and individual firm-related factors, there are individual-related factors that influence the risk of unemployment. These factors include gender, race/ethnicity, family background, industry, level of education, and level of job tenure. There is an employment gap between Whites and African Americans, although smaller for high-skilled workers than low-skill workers which suggests the presence of racial discrimination. Education is found to be positively correlated with employment, which implies that groups with higher levels of education generally have lower unemployment rates. The effects of incarceration and emotional functioning have also been explored. At the community level, for example, jail incarceration has been found to negatively affect local labor markets, especially in areas with relatively high proportions of Black residents.
Excessive crime rates
Deprivation is another significant contributor to the increasing crime rates. People resort to notorious activities when they are deprived of their basic rights since that impedes their means to obtain a livelihood in a conventional and honest way. They have limited options and are already at a disadvantaged position in society that they choose to make money and sustain themselves through hook or crook. This usually involves them engaging in criminal activities.
The flawed justice system is another major contributor to crimes. When people believe that they are not given their due and are unfairly treated by the system itself, they harbour feelings of resentment towards it and start to rebel. This involves them engaging in criminal activities and doing the opposite of what is expected of them. People try to get justice for themselves when they feel like the state is not going to do the same and tend to commit various acts of crime in their journey to avenge themselves and get what they believe they deserve. Many innocent people resort to crimes when they are wrongly proven to be guilty in the Courts owing to a lack of trust in the system.
Given that in today’s world crime isn’t restricted to something poverty-stricken people engage in but is something people of all backgrounds do, it is important to formulate techniques and curb crime altogether before it gets out of hand. The government plays a significant role here. They ought to execute effective and efficient crime prevention techniques in their capacity as a leader of the people so as to ensure there is harmony in society. Despite there being stringent legislation like the Indian Penal Code (1860) and other such enactments formulated to curb crime, the number of crimes reported in India is increasing every year as per the data collected by the National Crime Records Bureau. Though it seems effective, by these figures one can ascertain that stringent punishments alone aren’t sufficient to create fear in the minds of criminals and deter them from engaging in criminal activities. So, a reevaluation of the government’s efforts to curb crime is the need of the hour. Some measures that can be taken to curb criminal activities are mentioned below.
The interrelation between politics and crime is overlooked many times. This is problematic as many people have engaged in criminal activities while dealing with political issues. There are umpteen politicians with a criminal record. Additionally, there have been quite a few politicians in developing countries who have also been associated with violent crimes and murders. So many youth members of parties are often given weapons and instructed to handle matters violently during conflicts. Any political dispute, however insignificant, usually leads to rampant violence involving mobs. This not only exposes youth to criminal activities but also puts the lives of various citizens at risk. So, an unstable political situation in a country leads to an exponential increase in the crimes that take place there.
Given the assumption that all human beings engage in rational behaviour, it is mind-boggling to see the crime rates in industrialized economies go through the roof. Many social researchers were of the opinion that crime is heavily influenced by economic factors like employment, education, financial conditions, and the like. It is one of the most common side effects of social exclusion. Criminals with the background of industrial employees engaging in manual work choose that way of life due to the lack of both education and jobs in the market. Crime is heavily influenced by wages and the employment status of the people in question. Economists were of the opinion that educational programmes are the efficient way to combat the issue of rising crime in a world full of depleting jobs and wages. All economic models of crime focus on deterring effects and the interrelation between work and crime. They conclude that the main reason for a crime could be attributed to rampant unemployment.
The partial analysis provided can be used to explain the relationships that exist between some of the crime activities. This article is written by Athira R Nair, a student of the School of Law, Christ University, Bangalore. This article aims at shedding light on the various types of crime, their causes, and measures to curb them.
Graphical representation of the mean number of the different crime types. Oftentimes the background and family conditions of a criminal can be attributed to the reason behind their crimes. When people believe that they are responsible to provide for their family and they are unable to do so owing to lack of opportunities, lack of education or other such issues that handicap them, they resort to crime. This is a sad state of affairs as in such situations it is highly likely that the criminal would have refrained from engaging in criminal activities had there been sufficient means for them to sustain themselves and provide for their family. This issue does not lead to crimes such as theft alone but also motivates people to commit gruesome acts that put their freedom and lives at risk just so they can make a good amount of money through bribes or ransoms that can be used for their family’s sustenance.
Dire health conditions
Crises within the health workforce have been reported as perhaps the biggest constraint towards global health system development and sustenance, particularly in Africa . According to the 2006 World Health Report, 57 countries were in severe health workforce crises, with 37 of these in sSA—a region with only 3% of global health workforce, despite contributing about a quarter to the global disease burden . Nigeria, the most populous African country, possibly contributes even more to these crises in the region. Increasing annual rates of population growth, as observed in Nigeria, has been adjudged a major factor in countries with severe health workforce crises . Nigeria obviously requires significant increase in the number of additional health workers to achieve desired population coverage. However, beyond the shortfall in health workforce, the Nigerian health sector has particularly experienced a number of other lingering crises in recent times. There are growing concerns locally and internationally over these issues, with this linked to the overall poor states of health governance in the country . This paper therefore provides insights into a rapidly changing developing economy with a weak national health system governance and shortage of human resources for health. We examined some major health workforce crises in the Nigerian health sector in recent years (2010–2016), to understand key underlying causes and provide feasible recommendations toward preventing and/or managing potential future occurrences in the country.
Persistently low and inequitable distribution of health workers remain a major challenge in the Nigerian health sector . Bangdiwala et al. stated that there is a global crisis in health workforce as shown by acute shortages and uneven distribution of health workers in several settings . In Nigeria, experts have reported that historically, ‘brain drain’, in the form of migration of health workers to high-income settings, has been a major setback in the country . Current statistics show that 1 in 4 doctors, and 1 in 20 nurses, trained in Africa are currently working in developed countries, with this accounting for a shortfall of over 1.5 million health workers in the region . In Nigeria, the health workforce density is estimated at 1.95 per 1000 population . Abimbola and colleagues reported that this shortfall in Nigeria has been further complicated by gross inequity in health workforce distribution, as there is no national policy guiding the postings and transfers of health workers—redeployment is often based on discretion of administrative officers with multiple influences and several competing interests .
Based on our findings, it is evident that health workforce crises in Nigeria have continued to deteriorate due to some specific factors, mostly related to poor health leadership. As a way forward, some basic questions need to be addressed—Who benefits from industrial actions? How can conflicts among health professionals be addressed? How can negotiations be initiated? What solutions are needed and who should implement these? Who are the prominent actors? How can health leadership be built? To address these questions, an open stakeholders’ conference is important (and possibly on a regular basis) where all can agree on the essential challenges of the health sector, develop practical solutions and jointly work towards strengthening the health system. The public needs to clearly understand the grievances of the health workers, especially towards the government. No doubt, the health workers directly benefit from government’s interventions, but the public benefits even more when health service delivery is optimal.
The Nigerian health system is relatively weak, and there is yet a coordinated response across the country. A number of health workforce crises have been reported in recent times due to several months’ salaries owed, poor welfare, lack of appropriate health facilities and emerging factions among health workers. Poor administration and response across different levels of government have played contributory roles to further internal crises among health workers, with different factions engaged in protracted supremacy challenge. These crises have consequently prevented optimal healthcare delivery to the Nigerian population.
Across several low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), national health systems have been functioning sub-optimally due to recurring challenges within and external to the health sector, with this particularly affecting the delivery of accessible and affordable healthcare services . The health system, in most cases, is synonymous to publicly owned health facilities, with several important private and non-state actors being downplayed . The functional capacities of the health system in these settings have gradually weakened, having failed to recognize and maximize efforts of all organizations, institutions, structures and resources primarily devoted to improving health.
In Nigeria, several challenges have been reported within the health sector, especially in training, funding, employment, and deployment of the health workforce. We aimed to review recent health workforce crises in the Nigerian health sector to identify key underlying causes and provide recommendations toward preventing and/or managing potential future crises in Nigeria.
Current health statistics in Nigeria point to the deteriorating capacity of the health system, with an estimated infant mortality rate at 69/1000 live births; under-five mortality rate at 109/1000 live births; maternal mortality ratio at 814/100 000 live births; average life expectancy for men and women at 53 and 56 years, respectively; and relative probability of dying between 15 and 60 years estimated at 341 per 1000 population . In the last 10 years, there have been calls to address these prevailing issues, especially on the provision of better facilities for disease diagnosis and treatment, improved health workforce welfare and remuneration and a national health insurance scheme. One notable response is the National Health Act, which was signed into law by the former President Goodluck Jonathan on October 31, 2014, albeit having generated diverse disagreements and interests among various health professionals and stakeholders in the preceding 5 years . This is not unexpected as Nigeria actually operates a pluralistic healthcare system with the orthodox and traditional health practitioners operating without any collaboration, and the latter particularly having no regulation . Moreover, both private and public sectors provide the orthodox health services, with the private contributing over 65% of services despite owning only 38% of health facilities . Many of the stakeholders in the health sector have also benefited from the continued under investment in health, due to massive funds and aids received from international agencies and donors . All these have contributed to various interests among different stakeholders in the health sector, leading to the protracted delays with the formal signing of the Act. The Act is made of seven parts which establishes a legal framework for the regulation, development and management of the Nigerian health system and also set standards for rendering health services in the country . Each part contains essential sections towards positively impacting universal health coverage, healthcare cost, healthcare access, practice by healthcare providers, quality and standards, patient care and health outcomes. When fully implemented, it is equally expected to address funding and insurance facilities, including free medical care for under-fives, pregnant women, and elderly people with disabilities . However, it is still not surprising that more than 2 years after being signed into law, the Act is yet to be implemented. In fact, a recent report revealed that despite being aware of the Act, the overall knowledge of Nigerian health professionals on the Act is generally poor . Due, in part, to non-implementation of the Act, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) could only achieve 4% coverage since it was launched 12 years ago , although difficulties in convincing individual state governments to launch the scheme and the lack of adequate health workforce to potentially meet increased demand may have also contributed to non-implementation at the state and local government levels, respectively . As such, private out-of-pocket-expenditure on health still accounts for over 70% of the estimated per capital expenditure on health in the country, with this affecting equitable access to quality and affordable healthcare delivery .
Poor sanitation and hygiene facilities
A major outcome of the lack of sanitation facilities is open defection which, according to experts, usually provokes the outbreak of waterborne diseases such as cholera and dysentery in such communities, particularly among the children. The biggest cause of poor sanitation globally is simply lack of education. Even the simple act of washing hands regularly can have a huge impact on the overall health of a community. There are many causes of poor sanitation, let’s explore a few of these.
Lack of education: This is a relatively easy issue to combat as education starts typically in the form of school programs teaching children the importance of healthy habits when it comes to sanitation, waste control, clean drinking water and washing their hands. Poor sanitation reduces human well-being, social and economic development due to impacts such as anxiety, risk of sexual assault, and lost opportunities for education and work.
Health risks are often exacerbated by poor sanitation and hygiene practices and many preventable health problems and diseases can be avoided with a little education and the right environment and products (clean water, soap, water filters, composting toilets, grey water systems, etc). Poor sanitation is linked to transmission of diarrhea diseases such as cholera and dysentery, as well as typhoid, intestinal worm infections and polio. Poor exacerbates stunting and contributes to the spread of antimicrobial resistance.
The effect of poor water and sanitation can have far-reaching and ill-fated effects for those who are required to use unsanitary toilet facilities and drink, bathe, cook with and use contaminated water. The effects of poor sanitation can cause a large range of issues from health and well-being related through to economic and societal issues. The health issues alone make this a worthwhile cause to tackle for anyone that can involve themselves in helping those less fortunate than ourselves.
60 million Nigerians without access to basic drinking water and 80 million people without improved sanitation facilities Seventy-three per cent of the diarrhea and enteric disease burden is associated with poor access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and is disproportionately borne by poorer children. Frequent episodes of WASH related ill-health in children, contribute to absenteeism in school, and malnutrition. Only 26.5 per cent of the population use improved drinking water sources and sanitation facilities. Also, 23.5 per cent of the population defecate in the open.
Lack of Sewer Systems: Except for certain areas of Lagos, there are very little infrastructure and services to manage waste disposal. Seventy-one percent of Nigeria’s population does not have access to a sanitary toilet and disparities concentrate in rural areas. This means that often people will defecate in plastic bags, roadsides, railway tracks or bushes surrounding their communities for lack of a better option.
Access to hand wash facilities is even lower in rural and poor households in the county. At health care centers, basic hand-washing facilities are inadequate, as one in six hospitals (16 percent) do not have places for washing hands with soap and water. A World Bank report recently raised concern over the persistent outbreak of diarrhea diseases, cholera, death of women during childbirth and millions of naira lost to reduced productivity.
Some Solutions to Some of the Problems Affecting Nigerians Face
Question: How can we solve the political, social and economic problems in Nigeria? Nigeria has many problems. They include but are not limited to the following: I am not going to start listing any problems or solutions because anyone who grew up in Nigeria or temporarily lived there for an extended period of time knows the problem with Nigeria. I also want to believe that the average Nigerian knows what needs to be done to rectify the problems we face as a nation. Several naira lander have in several threads listed and offered solutions over the years. If the ruling elite does not want to take any advice because they are benefiting from the current corrupt system of things, then there is nothing anyone can do other than maybe split up the country.
We’ve discussed the major challenges that Nigeria is facing. These challenges are many, though not all of them were fully detailed here. However, this article also supplies some of the possible solutions to address those challenges. I believe that the situation of the country will get better if these solutions are put into action by both the government and the citizens of Nigeria. Nigeria is our country, and we can build it with combined effort. Let there be peace, and may you be an agent of peace.
The problem with Nigeria is that of low/poor mentality and the solution lies in what the Chinese. did a long time ago; some sort of re-education. Question: How can we resolve insurgencies and insecurities in Nigeria? Contemporary social problems in Nigeria can be solved by applying the following measures:
The Nigerians in Nigeria needs to be informed, en-lighting and empowered with quality education. Nigeria needs more power and better roads. The workers in these sectors should be paid well, and those with good skills and strong ethics should be rewarded. Citizens should carry out a peaceful movement, telling the government how important the power supply is to the country.
Question: How can Nigeria develop in term of injustice and lack of peace? These factors have significantly contributed to the economic problems in Nigeria today and solutions lie in good leadership, accountability, education, paying of taxes, employment, and security. The main problem of Nigeria is our retrogressive federal structure that encourages everyone to loot profligately , once “na our turn”, and discourages/erodes the notion of national pride.
The main problem of Nigeria is our retrogressive federal structure that encourages everyone to loot profligately , once “na our turn”, and discourages/erodes the notion of national pride. Answer: There are many ways the problem of insurgencies and insecurities can be resolved in Nigeria. What Nigerians must try to do is come together to support the emergence of a brave and equitable President who will be an enabler of progress rather than a stumbling block to development as we have had for the past 13 years under the PDP.
What Nigerians must try to do is come together to support the emergence of a brave and equitable President who will be an enabler of progress rather than a stumbling block to development as we have had for the past 13 years under the PDP. The main problem of Nigeria is GOVERNMENT…..and the solution is GOVERNMENT…..period, we have to find ways of dealing with those cabals and their sycophants. furthermore, the youth must enter into politics, so that, the concept of godfather in politics will be a history. May Allah help our great and bewitching country, NAIJA
Nigerian authorities could take action to address some of the problems affecting nigerians, and the nation world wide, including:
Contemporary social problems in Nigeria can be solved by applying the following measures: Nigeria, like many other countries in the world, lacks a consensus on how necessary changes and reforms are effected. This is caused by the fact that different religious and ethnic groups have varying benefits in which case some groups will have their interests met while others will not. This means that tension occurs when individuals who feel that they are deprived attempt to increase their stake of power or wealth or to alter the central beliefs, values, norms and philosophies. In Nigeria therefore, there appears to exist a contentious interaction of politics, ethnicity and religions, which has resulted in an increased sense of belonging and militancy. It is important to note that the general outcome of this is the intensification of numerous ethno-religious struggles in Nigeria. And this intensification can be seen as the main source of ongoing discrimination, subordination and domination in this country (Kura 2010:36).
Secretary of State Antony Blinken’s visit this week to Nigeria is timely, for Africa’s demographic giant is shuddering with its most dangerous instability in 50 years: insurgencies, uncontrolled criminality and constrictions of freedom of expression. Nigeria is failing to fulfill basic tasks of a nation-state, and its partners need to halt “business as usual” to open an honest dialogue about the current failings. For the United States, this means dropping some old practices in the way America engages Nigerians. U.S. engagements must center more on Nigeria’s citizenry, notably the 70 percent who are younger than 35, and with Nigeria’s 36 disparate states.
“It is clear that much needs to be done to help lift millions of Nigerians out of poverty, including boosting health and education, bolstering productive jobs, and expanding social protection” saidShubham Chaudhuri, World Bank Country Director for Nigeria. “Yet implementing pro-poor initiatives requires unlocking fiscal space; reforming expensive subsidies – including fuel subsidies – will be essential, alongside countervailing measures to protect the poor as reforms are effected.”
Nigeria’s federal system gives governors great responsibilities in addressing the issues driving the country’s multiple conflicts, including farmer-herder violence, deepening regional divides, armed banditry and the Boko Haram insurgency. USIP brings together state governors, national policymakers and civic leaders to design and implement inclusive policies that mitigate violence and strengthen community-oriented security. The Institute engages a variety of influential figures, empowers citizens and uses its expertise and convening power to inform Nigeria policy in the United States, the region and around the world. Recent work includes:
Through USIP’s ongoing Justice and Security Dialogue project, citizens at the local level collectively identify security challenges and organize dialogues that bring together internally displaced communities and police in Northeast Nigeria to develop practical and concrete solutions to address security concerns, build trust and foster accountability.
“Conflict is spreading and intensifying across Nigeria, so it is important to implement programs to support poor and vulnerable Nigerians that are simple and flexible while also limiting the risk of exacerbating fragility and conflict” said Tara Vishwanath, World Bank Lead Economist and co-author of the report. “Data can provide vital guidance on how to design, monitor, and evaluate pro-poor projects and programs, giving a voice to poor and vulnerable Nigerians” added Jonathan Lain, World Bank Economist and co-author of the report.
The country is ‘richly endowed with natural resources and high quality human capital’ (Ogbeidi 2012:1), but corruption is one of the main reasons that affect the development of the country in a negative way. The appropriation of state resources by certain hands makes poverty and bitter anger inevitable aspects of daily socio-economic and political routine. In this sense, though corruption is not peculiar to Nigeria, many sources call it the ‘bane of the country’ (Dike 2005; Ogbeidi 2012:21). And of course, corruption is considered to be one of the main causes of ethno-religious conflicts (Nwankwo 2015). Poverty and injustice caused by corruption weaken any sense of mutual tolerance, social solidarity or coexistence, while reawakening social hatred, radicalism and violence. For this reason, corruption is seen as one of the most important issues that has to be resolved in order to cope with ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria.
Improving infrastructure, such as railways, roads, and utilities
Infrastructure is directly linked to the economic development and growth of a country. Poor infrastructure is a serious obstacle in the development of communities and in economic progress. It changes the lives of communities drastically and contributes to poverty. Roads, dams and other infrastructure can play important roles in the economic development of communities. The key to their environmental success lies in examining all options, evaluating their placement in the landscape. If the project can’t be avoided, finding a path that that is economically, socially and environmentally responsible is crucial.
Infrastructure refers to the structures, facilities and systems that contribute to the function of a country. These include buildings, roads, bridges, airports, airways, power supplies, water and sanitation supplies, telecommunication systems and more. When these infrastructures are not operating properly, the chain of production is disrupted. This disruption hinders development, which causes economic deficit and, in turn, brings low standards of living.
It acts as a catalyst for the development of poverty alleviating solutions, providing access to basic needs such as health care, education, food resources, transportation, job opportunities and more. It also increases productivity and improves the quality of life for many communities. These are all examples of infrastructure—physical structures that provide the underpinnings for modern society. Infrastructure is a necessary part of the development associated with a growing human population, but it can also have devastating impacts on the environment. The road through the rainforest may fragment habitat or cut off the migration route for an endangered species. The dam may have diverted water from freshwater habitats already struggling through a drought. A spill from the oil platform may have killed marine organisms and left the shoreline polluted.
A road cuts through pristine rainforest to give a community access to the city. A dam creates a reservoir to provide freshwater to a growing town. A platform that is miles from the shoreline gives access to oil reserves deep below the ocean floor. Roads and railways are necessary to move goods and people across distances, but they have long-lasting effects on the landscapes they cut through. They can fragment ecosystems and halt migrating animals in their tracks. Cars and trains may kill animals in their paths and bring noise and air pollution to previously undisturbed areas. And roads and railways can facilitate illegal logging and hunting by opening up regions long kept pristine by their inaccessibility.
Infrastructure for transportation, energy projects and other developments that make modern life possible can often damage and destroy natural habitats, and negatively impact biodiversity. Ecosystems can be destroyed during the creation or installation of infrastructure such as roads and dams, and these structures can facilitate further destruction that continues for decades.
Through our non-lending infrastructure planning support portfolio, we also support under-resourced municipalities. We facilitate the creation of a cost-effective socio-economic municipal infrastructure. This, in turn, enhances the municipal revenues and improves the financial viability of the beneficiary municipalities. When municipalities are operating efficiently, they’re able to produce and offer sufficient services to the communities they serve.
Through our preparation project financing portfolio, we fund several large scale projects that result in the development of new and advanced school infrastructure. We also inject funds toward the upgrading of ageing, inadequate, unsafe and poor school infrastructure in previously disadvantaged communities. Additionally, the Bank has committed funds to public transport networks. This is done with the goal to ensure that safe, efficient and green transport systems are put in place.
Promoting economic growth, which would lead to increased jobs and better wages
The economic growth in the country will only lead to economic development, and would also result in certain benefits, including lower unemployment, higher average income, improved public services, investment, increased research and development, improved public facilities and lower government borrowing.
The report also recommends areas where reforms can contribute to economic growth and expand the job market, such as in trade, education and the digital economy The latest economic analysis for Nigeria says increasing productivity will be vital to support robust growth and job creation, and to keep an additional 30 million people from falling into extreme poverty
The relationships among employment and productivity and inflation showed that Nigeria and other developing nations need to increase employment (in quantity and quality) deliberately, to promote sustainable growth and industrialisation, and to eliminate unemployment and poverty. Furthermore, people would be afforded great opportunities to work in the manufacturing, agricultural and other sectors of the economy.
Relationship among employment, productivity and inflation in an economy This paper is written to demonstrate that employment is the blood of an economy and industrialization is the antidote to poverty. Rapidly growing economies demand employment of all categories; stagnating economies experience mass unemployment. Unemployment, as such is a critical symptom of stagnation (the disease). Hence, promoting sustainable economic growth, competence-building and rapid industrialization is the solution to mass unemployment and poverty in any society.
This growth represents both a challenge and an opportunity. It will be a challenge and a huge economic burden if productive opportunities are not found for their engagement. Gainfully employed, these educated millions can be harnessed to drive Nigeria’s economic growth, thus promoting social stability.
Leverage digital technologies to diversify the economy and create jobs for young workers. When a nation achieves the desirable economic transformation, the contributions of the learning people to the strength of the economy become: The report also recommends building momentum for reforms, which are essential to mitigate risks and promote faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth that improves living standards and reduces poverty. Select reform areas include:
Inevitably, a growing economy represents the best pathway toward addressing many of the social and economic challenges Nigeria now faces in its seventh decade of independence. The state should be reoriented, and directed purposely towards a more expansive interpretation with focus on rapid economic growth and the provision of public goods that empower citizens to become meaningful actors in the overall positive transformation of their society.
Reducing crime rates by addressing the root causes such as poverty, lack of education, and social instability
In your opinion, what are the most important problems facing this country that government should address? The renowned Security expert said that for the Government to tackle insecurity, a key starting point should be to understand the causes of insecurity as well as to investigate their sources of social disorder and instability.
The formulation and effective implementation of policies and programs capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria is crucial, especially with regard to poverty; unemployment, environmental degradation, injustice, corruption, porous borders, and small arms proliferation. Therefore, efforts to tackle insecurity can only be effective if there is a robust combination of legislative and judicial interventions with government reforms that address some of the acute human security challenges confronting a vast majority of the population.
Elimination of Corruption and Entrenchment of Social Justice – Corruption is viewed by everybody as the cog in the Nigerian wheel of progress and development. It is the bane of our society. It is both a social and economic monster. It is the cause of inequality and inequitable distribution of the nations’ wealth among its citizens, a situation that is the root cause of disaffection among Nigerians. It is theorized by many that fighting corruption and winning the war will bring about an egalitarian society, where fairness, social justice, and equal right for all will reign supreme; where rights will not be privileges for some people, and for others, privileges are their rights: where every Nigerian will be treated and accorded position not based on tribe and sect, but on merit defined in terms of the content of his character, mental capacity and ability to deliver; where there will be no discrimination.
To overcome insecurity there is a need for intelligence gathering and surveillance so that law enforcement agents could be proactive and reasonably predict potential crime with near-perfect accuracy rather than being reactive. Policies that focus solely on single governmental agencies, such as security agencies or the enactment of laws are unlikely to succeed. Instead, a coordinated preventive measure is necessary for addition to military strategies and judicial institutions. He posited that there is a need to reorder priorities and to seek a better understanding of the underlying causes and dynamics of the insecurity in the country with the aim of providing effective conflict prevention and management strategies.
Thus, in the absence of any real threats to security, expenditures on security can be reduced significantly, allowing national and local governments to channel more resources to other public goods to improve the quality of life of the people. In addition, insecurity destroys existing infrastructure and also prevents an environment for the development of further infrastructure; and a safe environment for economic activities by individuals to give them economic empowerment that will enable households not only to cater for their present generations but also to provide for future generations.
The Socio-Economic Development-This factor is strongly considered as the major key to peace and security in Nigeria. The challenge in solving the insecurity problem in Nigeria is to accelerate the pace of development. Development in this context consists of creating an economy with relevant social, economic, and physical infrastructure for business operations and industrial growth, to provide gainful employment, high-level education facilities, and medical care for the people.
Unemployment/Poverty -As a result of the high level of unemployment and poverty among Nigerians, especially the youths, they are adversely attracted to violent crime. Failure of successive administrations in Nigeria to address challenges of poverty, unemployment, and inequitable distribution of wealth among ethnic nationalities is one of the major causes of insecurity in the country.
Improving health conditions by investing in health care and education, improving sanitation and hygiene facilities, and tackling infectious diseases
tackling underlying drivers of poor health through the provision of community-based water and sanitation services and action to prevent and treat malnutrition integrating key essential services by promoting an affordable mix of equitable, inclusive and evidence-based services that include reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health services, nutrition, communicable and noncommunicable disease control, palliative care, rehabilitation, and mental health. These services need to be delivered based on countries priorities and guided by national leadership, so they become part of a sustainable national package of essential services. These need to be combined with prevention and health promotion services including hygiene practices, safe water and sanitation in health facilities, and transforming the infrastructure so it is more accessible for all and more resilient to climate change, such as investing in clean energy. There is often potential to create greater efficiencies between vertical programmes that focus on single issues (e.g. malaria, TB, HIV, neglected tropical diseases, polio, family planning, etc.) and broader health system efforts, making better use of the limited resources, whilst simultaneously providing a more holistic service which can in turn improve user experiences.
Provision of equitable access to water, sanitation and hygiene services. ensuring sustained impact over time by supporting national governments not only to deliver health services today but to build their own capacity to self-finance resilient, equitable and inclusive health systems that both prevent and respond to ill-health and pandemic threats in the future. We need to do better at looking at longer term strategies rather than just focusing on quick wins, acknowledging it can often take years to see the impact of health system strengthening efforts. This will require us to focus on both catalytic, short, and medium interventions, while laying the foundations for long-term action
Solutions ranked first by the groups include training and capacity building of health workers (n =19, 29.69%), increased budgetary allocation to health (n =13, 20.31%), and advocacy for political support and commitment (n = 8, 12.50%). The rest is shown in Table 4. As well as seeking to improve population health through the implementation of specific population-level interventions, public health contributes to medical care by identifying and assessing population needs for health care services, including:
strengthening our multisector approach and engagement by working not only with the public and private health sector but importantly across government sectors to promote a ‘health in all policies’ approach. Many of the actions we will take are outlined in our EPD approach paper. This includes healthy diets and safely managed water and sanitation services, action on climate change and improving air quality. We will continue to ensure our health investments complement and strengthen our support across multiple sectors such as economic development and infrastructure, animal and plant health, climate and environments, food systems, education, addressing violence against women and girls, gender equality, inclusion, and poverty reduction
implementation and social science research and building research systems that support cutting edge applied research and synthesise the best evidence. These will draw on UK and global expertise, to build stronger and more resilient health systems to respond to the pandemic and other emerging health threats and improve the delivery of health services for the poorest and the most vulnerable. We will ensure that health interventions are data driven and based on the best available science
National efforts to strengthen health systems need to be combined with international efforts to continually adapt to tackle existing and rising health threats including AMR, animal to human spread of diseases (zoonoses), climate change, demographic shifts, and chronic diseases. Strengthen government efforts to eradicate the practice of open defecation.
The UK Government will be at the forefront, harnessing our diplomatic and development know-how to strengthen the alliances needed to improve health globally. We are renewing our partnerships with developing countries to build stronger and more inclusive health systems. Systems that take us a step closer to universal health coverage, that are better prepared to deal with pandemics and infectious diseases, and more resilient to climate change.